Integrating Spreadsheets in the Classroom
Spreadsheets hold valuable applications for our lives and thus they hold valuable applications in the classroom.
Introduction to the Microsoft Excel © windowFiles are workbooks with worksheets. The basic sheet has several rows and columns. Columns are labeled (with buttons along the top) as A, B, C….AA, AB, BA, BB, etc. Rows are labeled (with buttons going down the left of the worksheet) as 1, 2, 3, etc. The worksheet is composed of cells that are named according to the letter and number that intersect at that point (A1, B5, C2, etc). The mouse pointer looks like a fat plus sign. Click in a cell to select it, and type the data into the cell. Push the arrow keys or tab to proceed to the next cell. Pushing enter will automatically move the mouse down to the cell below. The name of the cell that you are currently using is displayed in a white field at the left end of a toolbar that is directly above the worksheet. To edit data that is already in a cell, double click on the data, then you will be able to correct the information. If you only single click on the data, it will all be replaced by whatever you type.One of the best instructional uses of spreadsheet software is to allow students to generate graphs to represent data. Teachers use activities like this to teach the concept of graphing and reading graphs.
Using a Spreadsheet
Creating a spreadsheet for data input.
1. Launch Excel©.
2. Create a new spreadsheet.
3. Type a column heading in cell A1.
4. Starting in cell B1 and, continuing across row 1, type each column heading in its own cell.
5. Type the first round of data in row 2.
6. Type the remaining data in the remaining rows.
Inserting Formulas
7. Click the mouse in the cell that you want to have the formula.
8. Begin all formulas with =. Type the function that you want the formula to perform (sum, average, etc) then Open parenthesis, type the name of the first cell, type a colon, and type the name of the last cell, and close parenthesis (B2:B5).
9. You can copy the formula by using the small plus sign mouse to highlight the rest of the column or row that you want to perform the same function.

Creating a Graph or Chart
Certain data in an Excel sheet can be put into a chart. Follow these instructions:
10. Highlight the data you want in the chart.
11. Go to Insert and then Chart.
12. Select an appropriate chart, and then click Next.
13. Make sure the data series is in rows, click Next. If the chart doesn't look right, click on columns.
14. Check all of the options that you want, and then click Next.
15. Choose eitherplace chart "As a new sheet” or “as object in” and then click finish.

Students can go back to any step of the chart wizard to change something. If the graph is on its own sheet, and they have that sheet open, students will have a menu item at the top of the screen that says Chart. If the graph is an object in their worksheet, the Chart menu will only be available when the chart is selected (it has a frame around it). Students can click Chart and see the 4 steps of the chart wizard. Select any one of them to change a previously selected option.

Students can change the colors of a portion of their graph by clicking on the part that they want to change.
1. Click the column or pie piece that you want to change. If a frame appears around all of the columns or pie, then click it again. The frame will change to just surround the one column or pie piece that you selected.
2. When the frame is only around that one piece, then double-click it. That will bring up a color selection dialog box.
3. Click the color that you like and then click OK.
4. Repeat steps 1-3 to change each column or pie piece.

This can be done for almost any type of chart.An opportunity that technology provides for students, that they don’t get to do as easily without the technology, is to create several different kinds of graphs with the same data. An important skill in understanding the use and purpose of a graph is to understand what types of graphs represent certain types of data best (refer to the last page of the handout for a description of the major types of charts and graphs). A pie chart represents data that is part of a whole best, but it may not be very helpful with data that is comparing total amounts. The TAKS test asks questions that want to know the best use of tools like graphs. They need to have experience using different types of graphs for different purposes. This is a good way for students to learn the best use for each type of graph. Students can then use the graphs that they create to help analyze and draw conclusions on the results of their data. It is very important that we continue past the initial skill of creating a graph and past reading the graph to using the information that is represented. Students should get experience at reading and interpreting different graphs that are in worksheets, but they also need to be able to gather data, create a graph, and then analyze the data that they gathered. For those that want to have students practice math facts, you can create a math fact sheet where students answer math facts and put in a formula to check their answers.
Common Spreadsheet Functions: (Shortcut Formulas)
Addition: B7+D7
Subtraction: B7-C7
MULTIPLICATION: B7*C7
SUM or @SUM: Finds the sum of a range of numbers.
DIVISION: B7/C7
AVG or @ AVG: Finds the average of a range of numbersExample: AVG(B2:E2) - Some software programs use symbols other than a colon (:) to express "through".
MIN or @MIN: Finds the smallest number in a range of cells.
COUNT or @COUNT: Finds how many cells have a value entered.
SQRT or @SQRT: Finds the square root of a number.
MAX or MAX: Finds the largest number in a range of cells.

Students can also keep an informal grade book to enter grades. It could automatically calculate their average. Some kids that can’t seem to figure out what operation to use to solve word problems can use spreadsheets and formulas to calculate answers. They can generate a graph to see a visual representation of the problem to check their operation, if it is appropriate. After a few simple problems they can begin to work on more complicated problems. This will reinforce the concept of using more than one operation to solve problems. Again a graph can be generated to demonstrate the concept visually.

Types of Charts
Column Chart – data changes over time or among items or illustrates comparisons among items
Stacked Column Charts – relationships of individual items to the whole
3D Perspective Column Charts – compares data point along two axes
Bar Chart – illustrates comparisons among individual items, with less emphasis on time than column charts
Stacked Bar Charts – relationship of individual items to the whole
Line Chart – shows trends in data at equal intervals
Pie Charts – shows the proportional size of items that makes up a data series to the sum of the items
XY Charts – either shows the relationships among the numeric values in several data series or plots two groups of numbers as one series of XY coordinates. XY Charts are commonly used for scientific data
Area Charts – emphasizes the magnitude of change over time. Also shows the relationship of parts to the whole
Doughnut Chart – relationship of parts to a whole. It can contain more than one data series with each ring representing a different data series
Radar Chart – each category has its own value axis radiating from the center point, the lines connecting all the values in the same series
Surface Chart – finds optimum combination between two sets of data
Bubble Chart – this is a type of XY Chart in which the size of the data marker indicates the value of a third variable. Commonly used to display market research or financial data
3D Shapes – cylindrical, pyramid, and cone

Miscellaneous Activities

Label a Picture or Diagram
1. Find a picture that you want your students to label.
2. Save the picture to your (F) drive.
3. Open a new MS Excel© document.
4. Click on Format, then Sheet, then Background.
5. Select the picture that you want to use as a background. (Most clip art files won’t work) Click Insert.
6. The picture will be copied across and down the page.
7. Go to the 1st column after the edge of the picture.
8. Click and hold the left mouse button on the heading of that column and drag it all the way off the page to the right. Let all of the columns go by until you get all the way to the end. (IV)
9. Click on Format, then Columns, then Hide.
10.Find the first row after the edge of the picture.
11.Click and drag it all of the way off the page to the bottom. Go until all, of the rows stop. (65560 or something like that)
12.Click on Format, then Rows, then Hide.
13.Click your mouse on a cell that is over the portion you want labeled.
14.Click on Insert, then Comments.
15.Backspace until Magnolia ISD is removed and type the label.
16.Click anywhere on the spreadsheet to hide the comment.
17.Move your mouse over the selected cell to see the comment pop up.